What are the motor organs?

Movement is the nature of all living things, a symbol of life, and an instinct for survival.

Humans are vertebrates, and human organs of movement far surpass all vertebrates. Its greatest advantage lies in upright walking, flexible upper limbs, and hands with a unique palm-to-hand function (holding function). Under the domination of a developed brain, a civilized world of mankind was created.

How does the human body move? It turns out that every movement of a person is realized by muscle contraction and traction of bones. To put it vividly, the puppets in the puppet show are made of wooden strips and blocks, and the wooden strips and blocks are connected by silk loops. Joints, where the wooden slats are close to the joints, the pull-strings are like muscles with traction. When the performance is performed, the puppets can produce a variety of actions by pulling the strings with their hands.

All kinds of human movements are also accomplished through this principle. In a nutshell: Human movement uses bones as levers, joints as hubs, and muscle contractions as the power to produce various movements under the control of nerves.

So: the organs of movement are composed of three parts: bones, joints, and muscles.

1. Adults with normal bones have 206 bones. The bones have different shapes and rarely have standard geometric figures, but when combined, they completely conform to the biomechanical structure of a person’s standing movement. In this complex bone structure, the bone morphology is divided into long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones.

a. Long bones: consist of the middle bone and both ends. The middle bones are mostly tubular with swelling at both ends, so they can act as a lever and support body weight during exercise

b. Short bones: The short bones are short in shape, have many articular surfaces and are irregularly cuboidal, but the combination of bones and bones is accurate, and they are often arranged into ellipses and located in them according to the shape of the two ends of the long bones, such as hands and feet. The wrist bones and tarsal bones are very short, suitable for the high flexibility needs of hands and feet.

c. Flat bones: The flat bones are large in area, thin and strong, and play the role of protecting the organs.

For example, football players often head the ball without being injured because of the skull protection. In addition, flat bones have a large muscle attachment surface, which is conducive to muscle contraction and movement. Such as scapula, pelvis, and so on.

d. Irregular bones: Irregular bones are in irregular blocks, but the combination of blocks and blocks is highly precise, such as vertebrae form the spine, hip bones form the pelvis, and connect the femur of the lower limbs; temporal bones form the skull. These bones also protect the spinal cord, organs, and brain.

Usually, the surface of the bone is not very flat, but high and low, grooves and depressions, which also play an important role in sports. The higher part has a bone spine, bony process, bulge, nodule, tuberosity, and bony condyle, and the concave part has fossa, groove, pressure mark, and notch.

In addition, the flat part is the bone surface, and the bow-shaped curve is called the bow. The two parts are protruding and the middle is groove-shaped and curved to approximate the shape of a pulley, which is called a pulley. The joints formed by bones and bones are often connected with one side convex and concave. The convex side is called the joint head, and the concave side is called the joint socket. These also play an important role in sports.

Most of the protruding parts of the bones are the attachment parts of the muscles, which act as a lever for movement. Grooves are mostly tendons, where nerves pass during movement, which can reduce friction. The toroidal surface, pulley, head, and socket are all involved in the formation of joints. Bone has five functions in the human body

The bones are connected to the bones to form the support of the human body, which bears the weight of part of the body and the whole body.

When the bone is pulled by the muscles, it can rotate around the joint axis, which can make the human body produce a variety of movements, such as basketball, football, gymnastics, martial arts, and so on. The result of rotation, so the bone is the lever of human movement.

Bone has protective functions, for example, the skull protects the brain; the chest and ribs protect the heart and lungs; the pelvis protects the abdominal organs; the spine protects the spinal cord.

There is red bone marrow in the bone, which has a hematopoietic function: people suffering from hematopoietic dysfunction can rely on transplantation of healthy bone marrow to restore hematopoietic function. Normal healthy artificial blood functions well, and there is no need to use supplements or drugs to produce hematopoiesis.

A large amount of calcium and phosphorus are stored in the bone, which is the storage of calcium and phosphorus in the human body. It maintains a balance with the calcium content in the blood. For example, 100 ml of blood contains 6 mg of calcium, and 100 grams of bone contains 10 grams of calcium. . Normal and healthy children, adolescents, middle-aged and elderly people do not need to take special medicine for calcium supplementation, because some daily foods contain a lot of calcium, such as milk, meat, and beans.

2. The structure of bone joints: bone and bone are connected by connective tissue, cartilage tissue, and bone tissue to form joints. According to the range of joint motion, it is divided into fixed joints, semi-moving joints, and moving joints. Human body movement is accomplished by moving joints, so movement often refers to moving joints.

a. The structure of the joint: It is mainly composed of the joint surface, joint capsule, and joint cavity.

Articular surface: most joints are formed by one side protruding and the other side is concave. The contact part of the convex and concave is covered with a layer of smooth, transparent, and elastic hyaline cartilage, which is called the articular surface. It can reduce friction, vibration, and impact during exercise.

Joint capsule: the connective tissue surrounding the joint. The joint capsule is divided into inner and outer layers. The outer layer is called the fibrous layer and the inner layer is called the synovial layer. Usually, synovitis referred to by joint pain refers to the inner layer of the joint capsule. The synovial layer can secrete a little transparent synovial fluid, which can reduce the friction in the joint during exercise

Joint cavity: the space between adjacent joint surfaces is closed by the joint capsule.

There is also a little synovial fluid in the cavity, which can also reduce the friction of the joints during exercise. There is no air in the joint cavity, and negative pressure is formed, which is attractive and has an important role in strengthening the joint to prevent separation and dislocation between the two bones.

b. Auxiliary structure of bone joints: there are some auxiliary structures around the joints, which also play an important role in sports

Synovial sac: located between the tendon and bone. The effect is to reduce the friction between the tendon and the bone during exercise.

Synovial folds: It can fill the gaps between joints, make the articular surfaces smooth and adaptable, and reduce the impact and friction between the articular surfaces. It is like putting a layer of soft foamed plastic between glassware to prevent impact. Synovial folds are attached to the knee joint.

Glenoid: Some glenoid sockets are very shallow, but the joint head is large. Such joints are not only flexible in human movement but also have a large and complete range. In order to strengthen the joints, an upper edge is inlaid around the joint socket. This edge is called the glenoid. The human shoulder and hip joints are such structures.

Intra-articular cartilage: It is a layer of cartilage that is cushioned between the joints, so that the joints can adapt to each other, and can also reduce the impact and vibration on the joints.

There are two forms: one is half-moon-shaped, and the other is disc-shaped. The human knee joint has a meniscus inside and outside each, the inside is the medial meniscus, and the outside is the lateral meniscus. In sports, they are often injured by knee rotation violence. The disc-shaped joint disc is located in the sternoclavicular joint

Joint ligaments: joint ligaments are divided into intra-articular ligaments and extra-articular ligaments.

The intra-articular ligaments are in the joint capsule, and the extra-articular ligaments are outside the joint capsule. Their function is to strengthen the joint and limit the excessive movement of the joint. The human knee joint has these ligaments. Such as the anterior cruciate ligament and the posterior cruciate ligament in the knee joint. There are medial collateral ligaments and lateral collateral ligaments outside the joint capsule. Athletes often damage these ligaments due to fierce competition. This is more common in basketball and football sports. Normally strengthening the quadriceps exercises of the thigh can reduce this kind of injury.

3. Muscles are the power part of the human body’s movement organs. There are about 500 muscles in the whole body, and their weight accounts for 40% of the body weight, and the muscles of the limbs account for about 80% of the total muscle weight. The distribution of various muscles is focused. In order to ensure a person’s uprightness, the muscles on the back, buttocks, front of the thighs, and back of the calves are particularly developed. The main feature of the lower extremity muscles is the upright load movement.

The upper limbs are different from any vertebrate. They do not participate in their own weight load and crawling. They are characterized by flexible and changeable upper limb muscles. They can adapt to the ability of both hands to hold objects. This is called the “palm function”, which is a unique function of humans.

a. Muscle structure: Each muscle (skeletal meat) is composed of a large number of muscle fibers, abundant blood vessels, and nerves. Many muscle fibers combine to form small muscle bundles, many small muscle bundles merge into large muscle bundles, and finally, several large muscle bundles merge into large muscles. Each muscle can generally be divided into the abdominal muscles in the middle and the tendons at both ends. Tendons are composed of dense connective tissue. Muscles are attached to the surface of the periosteum, fascia, and joint capsule by virtue of tendons. Muscle contraction pulls these parts to form a bone lever movement.

The tendon is tough and strong, but it is prone to acute and chronic injuries at the attachment point. If it is subjected to strong violence, it can cause avulsion fractures. Therefore, when doing some difficult or intense movements, you should prepare for the exercise first, and then practice after warming up to avoid injury.

b. Muscle performance: All human exercises are achieved by muscle contraction. Understanding muscle performance and performing corresponding exercises will produce better results.

Stretchability and elasticity: The muscle is like a rubber band that can stretch and retract quickly. This retraction is called elasticity. The longer the muscle is pulled, the faster it retracts and the higher its function. For example, when throwing a javelin: first stretch the upper limbs back, and then suddenly contract the muscles to throw the javelin away. In the in-situ long jump, first, bend the knees and the ankles to lengthen the muscles of the front of the thigh and the back of the calf, and then suddenly contract the muscles of the front of the thigh and the back of the calf, that is, stretch the knee and push the ground to jump forward.

So most sports are done by muscle elasticity.

Muscle viscosity: muscles are viscous. When the muscle contracts, the friction between the molecules inside the muscle fibers and between the muscle fibers produces resistance, which prevents the muscles from rapidly elongating and shortening, which consumes an additional part of the body’s energy. The colder the climate, the more viscous the muscles will be. Therefore, when practicing a certainly difficult and larger movement, you should first do a simple warm-up exercise to increase the body temperature, reduce the viscous resistance of the muscles, and accelerate muscle elongation And the speed of contraction can also avoid muscle damage.

c. Auxiliary structure of muscles: In order to meet the needs of muscle contraction, auxiliary structures are provided around the muscles to ensure the contraction function of the muscles.

Fascia: Fascia is divided into the superficial fascia and deep fascia. The superficial fascia is under the skin and contains fat. It is a layer of loose connective tissue to maintain elasticity and softness under the skin. The deep fascia is located in the deep layer of the superficial fascia, which wraps every muscle like a plastic film. What it does:

① Separate the muscle group from each muscle in the muscle group, thereby forming an intramuscular space (separating the muscles), and at the same time, it also becomes the attachment point of the deep muscles. Finally, it is connected to the periosteum and becomes the attachment point of the muscle.

②The fascia and the vascular sheath are connected, so blood circulation is promoted when the muscle contracts.

③If there is inflammation, the fascia can limit the expansion of inflammation in the muscle.

Tendon sheath: It is a long tube formed by a double layer of connective tissue membrane. There is synovial fluid between the two membranes. The tendon sheath is sheathed on the tendon and located near the joint to reduce friction and damage to the tendon. When the human body is moving, if the joints are overloaded or the principle of gradual progress is not followed, tenosynovitis will occur. It often occurs in the wrists, fingers, shoulders, ankles, and Achilles tendon.

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