The function of sugar?

Sugars, also known as carbohydrates. It mainly provides fuel for life activities in the human body and is the main source of human energy. About 70% of the energy required for human daily organ activities and physical activities are derived from carbohydrates. Foods rich in sugar are mainly grain foods such as rice and noodles.

Regarding carbohydrates, we should know: Sugar is one of the important components of the human body, and its content accounts for 2% of the human body’s dry weight. Sugar is the main source of heat energy in the human body (4 kcal of energy per kilogram of carbohydrates), which accounts for 40-50% of the body’s total energy source.

Sugar is also involved in the formation of human tissue cells, regulation of fat metabolism, liver glycogen and detoxification function of the liver; glycoproteins can enhance the body’s immunity; sugars and lipids form glycolipids, which are components of nerve tissue and cell membranes; sugars and Protein synthesis glycoprotein is a component that forms physiologically functional substances such as antibodies, certain enzymes and hormones.

Classification of sugar?

Carbohydrates can be divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides according to their hydrolysis

(1) Monosaccharides, sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed into smaller molecules are called monosaccharides. Important five-carbon sugars in organisms include ribose and deoxyribose, which are the basic components of cellular ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid; important six-carbon sugars include glucose, fructose, and galactose, among which glucose is the basic component of blood sugar. Fructose and galactose can be effectively used by the body only after being converted into glucose in the liver.

(2) Oligosaccharides, also known as oligosaccharides, are sugars formed by the condensation of 2-10 monosaccharide molecules. Among oligosaccharides, disaccharides are the most common and have the greatest biological significance. Common disaccharides are sucrose, lactose and maltose. At present, oligosaccharides of 4 to 10 glucose units are often used in sports drinks, which not only increase the glucose concentration, but also maintain the low permeability of the solution, which is easy for the body to digest and absorb, and increase the utilization of sugar in cells.

Therefore, oligosaccharide beverages have a good effect of delaying the occurrence of long-term exercise fatigue and accelerating the recovery of sugar reserves after exercise.

(3) Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are formed by the condensation of multiple monosaccharide molecules, such as starch, sugar and cellulose. Starch mainly exists in the seeds and tubers of plants. Glycogen, also known as animal starch, is widely found in humans and animals in the form of granules, and the liver and muscles are especially abundant in storage.

The sugar storage in an adult is about 400 to 500 grams. Under normal physiological activities, the glycogen content of skeletal muscle does not change much, and the general range is 10-15 grams of glycogen per kilogram of wet muscle. Athletes who have been engaged in endurance training for a long time have higher muscle glycogen content, which can reach 20 to 30 grams per kilogram of wet muscle.

The content of liver glycogen is easily affected by the amount of dietary sugar and fluctuates greatly every day, with an average glycogen content of about 50 grams per kilogram of liver tissue. Cellulose is the most widely distributed and most abundant type of polysaccharide in nature. It is the main component of plant fibers and cells. The human digestive system cannot directly use cellulose, but the intake of cellulose can promote gastrointestinal motility and has physiological benefits such as reducing cholesterol absorption.

What are the effects of too little or too much sugar intake on the human body?

Too little sugar intake. People are afraid of cold, fatigue easily, function decline, weight loss, and hypoglycemia.

Excessive sugar intake: high blood sugar will be produced, which can easily lead to diabetes, and too much sugar can easily be converted into fat and cause obesity.

Food sources of sugar?

  • Pure sugar (brown sugar, white sugar, honey, maltose);
  • Cereals (rice, flour, corn);
  • Dried beans (soy beans, broad beans);
  • Roots (potatoes, taro);
  • Hard fruits (chestnuts, peanuts, etc.).

What problems should the sports crowd pay attention to when supplementing sugar?

The simple sugars that modern people like to eat are easier to absorb. In order to maintain muscle endurance, sugar intake can be appropriately increased. However, eating more sugar makes obesity, obese people should be properly controlled, but it is wrong to completely refuse to eat sugary substances or starch. The absorption process of polysaccharides is complicated, and it is not easy to cause obesity.

As for the amount of carbohydrate supplement, we might as well compare it with fuel. If a car can run 100 kilometers with full fuel, and you only want to run 25 kilometers, you don’t have to fill the fuel tank. Therefore, generally, marathon runners should consume 3.7 to 4.5 grams of carbohydrates per pound of body weight per day, while bodybuilders should consume 2.3 grams of carbohydrates, and perhaps a little too much, because bodybuilders do not have to rely solely on carbohydrate reserves for energy.

The role of fat nutrition?

Lipids are one of the important nutrients for energy. The lipids in the body include neutral fat glycerol, free fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids and so on. Glycerin and free fatty acids are of great significance in energy for sports. Cholesterol and phospholipids are important components of cell membranes and cranial nerves. Cholesterol is also a synthetic material for bile acids and steroid hormones, and has important functions for maintaining body functions.

Lipids are an important energy source during long-term exercise. The function of lipids during exercise is to provide free fatty acids to supply energy, so as to reduce the consumption of fat by glycogen in the body. For the human body, it not only provides essential fatty acids for the body, but also provides the It stores heat energy, so it is also called a “fuel depot.”

About 20% of the energy required by the human body comes from fat. Insufficient fat intake will not only lead to insufficient supply of essential fatty acids and energy, but also affect the absorption and utilization of fat-soluble vitamins. The main food sources of fat are meat and legumes.

The function of lipids?

(1) 1 gram of lipids can provide 9 kilocalories, while 1 gram of sugars and proteins can only provide 4 kilocalories, which is more than twice that of lipids. The molecule contains more carbon and hydrogen, less oxygen, easy to be reduced, easy to store, small in size, and can be stored in large quantities. Marathon runners only rely on sugar for energy, which cannot meet their sports needs. They must also rely on the energy provided by fat.

(2) When used as an energy source, it produces less carbon dioxide than sugar, and the buffering effect of muscle and blood is lighter.

(3) Vegetable oil contains a lot of Linoleic acid, also known as vitamin F, which is a fatty acid that cannot be synthesized in the body. It can improve the function of endocrine glands, for example: improve the function of adrenal glands and gonadal function.

(4) Fat can promote the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, and E.

(5) A small amount of intake will give you a feeling of fullness, which can avoid the burden on the stomach and intestines due to excessive intake of sugars, so it is suitable for a day of super endurance vigorous exercise

(6) It can save carbohydrate metabolism, but increase the intake of vitamin B1.

What are the hidden dangers of excessive lipid intake?

(1) Ingesting too much fat, the oxidation process causes a large amount of acidic ketone bodies such as acetoacetic acid, B-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, etc., and a large amount of accumulation in the body is easy to form metabolic acidosis, which destroys the body’s acid-base balance and damages the circulatory and respiratory functions. Damage and reduced overall endurance. Generally speaking, after a high-fat diet, the duration of exercise is only one-third of that of a high-sugar diet, about 90 minutes.

(2) Excessive intake of fat can cause obesity, which can easily induce hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and renal dysfunction.

What should be paid attention to when ingesting lipids?

When ingesting fat, you should pay attention to some things:

(1) The average adult intake is about 20% to 25% (50 to 70 grams) of total calories. The developing adolescents or strenuous exercise require a lot of energy, and fat can account for 25% to 30%.

(2) Too high cholesterol concentration in the blood can easily cause arteriosclerosis. The level of concentration is affected by dietary conditions and the amount of exercise. Food reduction, intake of vegetable oils with polyunsaturated fatty acids, and exercise training can reduce cholesterol content. In particular, intake of vegetable oils containing a lot of linoleic acid (such as soybean oil accounts for 51%, Sunflower oil accounts for 70%), which can significantly lower cholesterol.

3) There are three essential fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and must rely on food supply, namely linoleic acid, hypolinoleic acid, and unsaturated arachidic acid, all of which are vegetable oils of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are easily exposed to oxygen and moisture in the air. , Mold growth, ultraviolet radiation, heating and other deterioration, not only reduce the nutritional value, but also damage the digestive tract, kidneys, and liver. For example: re-cooking oil is very toxic and should be avoided.

What are macro elements and trace elements?

Minerals are also called inorganic salts. Although they are inorganic substances, they are also indispensable in life. People usually divide them into macro-elements and micro-elements according to how much the human body needs for it. Those requiring more than 100 mg are called macro elements, such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, etc.; those requiring less than 100 mg are called trace elements, and as many as 14 species have been discovered so far. Such as iron, iodine, copper, zinc, selenium, etc. Various minerals are widely distributed in daily foods and are prone to deficiency.

What kinds of vitamins are there?

Vitamin is a special nutrient. It neither participates in the structure of human tissue, nor can it provide energy. Its main function is to regulate the metabolism of various substances in the human body, so it is called “the catalyst of life.” The human body requires very little of it, generally calculated in milligrams or micrograms, but it must not be lacking. Vitamins have a huge family, which are usually divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble types according to their solubility.

Among them, fat-soluble vitamins mainly include A, D, E, and K. They are not easily soluble in water, only soluble in fat; water-soluble vitamins include B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, etc.) and vitamin C. A deficiency of any of these vitamins can produce corresponding deficiencies.

Various vitamins are mainly found in foods such as vegetables, fruits, and animal organs.

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