(1) To maintain growth and development, protein is the main material that constitutes muscles, organs, and endocrine glands. It is also the basic raw material for bone, teeth, skin, nails, hair, red blood cells and even serum. In fact, every living cell and body fluid (except urine and bile) contains protein.

Therefore, the primary demand for amino acids is to provide the raw materials needed for the construction and continuous replacement of somatic cells in life.

(2) Regulatory functions. Proteins in the human body have their special regulatory functions, including:

1. Nuclear protein (ie genetic gene);

2. Enzymes are the catalysts in the body, which help digestion, absorption and various metabolisms and other biochemical reactions;

3. Hormones, also known as hormones, can regulate the progress of various metabolic processes;

4. Immune protein, maintain the body’s defense system;

5. It is related to muscle contraction, such as Myosin and Actin;

6. Proteins in the blood have multiple functions: transport proteins, such as Transferrin to carry nutrients to the tissues, and Albumin regulates the osmotic pressure in the blood and maintains water balance

(3) Provide energy, 4 kilocalories per 1 gram of protein. Generally speaking, the human body first provides energy from other sources (such as carbohydrates and fats). When the supply of carbohydrates and fats is insufficient to meet energy needs, the protein in the food or in the body is metabolized to provide energy. When amino acids are used to provide energy, they lose their ability to synthesize proteins.

When the calorie intake from carbohydrates and fats is sufficient for the body, protein can be used to exert its main nutritional properties and avoid being used as calorie consumption to improve the effective utilization of protein.

Which foods contain higher quality protein?

A complete protein should contain sufficient essential amino acids (referring to the amino acids that the human body cannot synthesize and must be supplied from food) for the needs of the tissues, and at the same time can promote the normal growth rate, indicating that its protein quality is better; , Milk and meat (including fish and poultry) are complete protein. Plant wheat germ and dry yeast can achieve the same high nutritional value as animal food.

(1) Complete protein foods with high nutritional value: eggs, milk, lean meat, fish, soybeans, etc.

(2) Semi-complete protein foods with less nutritional value: grains.

(3) Incomplete protein foods with poor nutritional value: tendons, shark fins, tendons, toes, etc.

The role of high-protein foods?

High protein means high protein content. Like general food protein, it is also a kind of protein. The difference is that it is extracted from natural foods and concentrated into foods with high protein content. In order to promote muscle growth and muscle fiber regeneration, athletes of muscle strength type (such as bodybuilding explosive power (such as 100-meter sprint) and resistance type (such as weightlifting) should take appropriate amounts of high-protein foods. The effect is better when ingested during sports training. Such high-protein foods are mainly made from concentrated milk protein.

In addition, it is recommended to use high-quality legume protein, such as soybean protein with added sugars, various vitamins and iron. It has high protein and balanced nutrition. It is not only helpful for people who like sports, but also for vegetarians to supplement high-quality protein. Kind of method.

How can vegetarians improve the quality of protein in their food?

For vegans, by relying on legumes, whole grains, mixed foods of nuts and vegetables, etc., the complementary effects of various plant food proteins and amino acids can also obtain a more comprehensive nutrition. If only a single plant protein is consumed, Due to its limited types of amino acids, it may cause a lack of nutrients.

Therefore, if athletes are vegetarian, they can properly take in ovo-lacto, and if they are vegan, they must pay attention to supplementing vitamin B12 to prevent anemia.

In order to ensure that the food can supply various amino acids at the same time, you can pay attention to this combination:

Such as brown rice with soybeans for cooking rice;

Whole wheat bread with peanut butter;

Use red beans or mung beans to cook porridge;

Or mix rice and egg to make simple egg fried rice;

Or boil chicken rice soup to improve the nutritional value of corn, etc.,

The amino acids in the protein can make up for each other.

High-quality and rich animal protein foods include eggs, meat (pig, cow, chicken, duck, etc.), seafood (fish, shrimp, crab, shellfish), milk, liver, kidney, etc.;

Plant-based protein foods include beans (soy beans), peanuts, and sesame seeds.

Pay attention to when eating, plant-based protein foods should be matched in multiple ways, or eaten with a small amount of animal-based protein foods at the same time, in order to achieve the effect of complementing protein quality.

How much protein should be supplemented every day?

For protein intake, the amount recommended by various health organizations and special sports committees varies greatly. This is because there are many factors, including age, weight, gender, muscle level, exercise, total calorie intake, and the biological value of the protein eaten, which can affect protein demand.

The protein quality of athletes should account for 15% of the total calories (10%-14% for the average person).

In terms of protein sources, the higher the quality of the protein, the better. For example, egg white, milk, beef, fish, lean pork, etc. are the best choices. The protein requirement of athletes is determined according to the amount of exercise (exercise intensity × exercise time), age, type of exercise and training purpose.

The protein requirement of European and American athletes is about 2 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. It is more appropriate for the training period to be 2 grams per kilogram of body weight per day. Orientals are lower. Bodybuilders have a higher demand for dietary protein due to the special needs of shaping their body. On the premise of ensuring sufficient total calories, bodybuilders should consume at least 0.7 to 1 grams of protein per pound of body weight per day, of which more than 65% should come from animal protein foods.

Why do athletes need more protein than the average person?

On the one hand, athletes need more protein as raw materials to build muscles. If there are sufficient amino acids in the blood, myofibrils will increase and muscle strength will increase; on the other hand, it is to prevent the occurrence of sports anemia. When athletes train with a large amount of exercise, a large amount of protein in the muscles is synthesized. At this time, if sufficient protein is not taken to supplement amino acids, red blood cells and plasma proteins will be decomposed and destroyed, causing anemia.

Would it be better to add too much protein?

At present, there is no example of excessive intake that can improve athletic performance.

Because amino acids in the body maintain a certain amount of activity, when excessive intake, the remaining amino acids are converted into fat, part of which is used for energy, and the rest is stored in adipose tissue in the form of fat. Even if it is used as an energy source, uric acid is produced at the same time. In order to dilute and excrete uric acid, a large amount of water is needed, causing the body fluids to lose balance. Before uric acid is excreted, there is a long period of time to increase the burden on the kidneys, and sometimes when it cannot be excreted completely and accumulates, it can cause symptoms such as hyperuricemia and gout.

Therefore, do not consume excessive amounts of protein, and also consider protein supplements. It is best to properly distribute the diet content and consume an appropriate amount of protein.

Therefore, excessive protein intake may have the following effects on the body

(1) Waste, turned into fat

(2) Increase the metabolic burden of the liver and kidneys.

(3) Increase water demand.

(4) It is possible to consume more saturated fatty acids and cholesterol at the same time.

(5) May cause high urine calcium and cause calcium loss

What should you pay attention to when ingesting protein?

(1) Excessive intake of protein food will increase acidic metabolites, so alkaline substances such as vegetables and fruits should be increased to achieve acid-base balance.

(2) Carbohydrates, fats and other energy sources need to be ingested appropriately so that the ingested protein can be effectively used as synthetic protein in the body. This phenomenon is called the protein-saving effect of carbohydrates and fats.

(3) Athletes often misunderstand the meaning of a high-protein diet, thinking that it is enough to eat only protein foods such as fish and meat. They do not know that this can easily lead to the lack of other nutrients and malnutrition, especially during strenuous exercise. Moreover, when eating high-protein foods, a lot of fat will be consumed, which will cause problems in exercise efficiency and health. At the same time, it will also make staple foods such as rice and bread and other carbohydrate-rich foods have to be reduced.

(4) Foods rich in protein should be distributed among the three meals, so that the effect of complementing each other can be obtained without wasting. If you concentrate on one meal, there is a risk of turning into fat, which will increase the burden on the kidneys and even affect the function of the kidneys.

(5) In the reconstruction of damaged muscle cells after exercise, the main raw materials, in addition to protein, must rely on the effects of vitamins and minerals, so that the reconstruction process can be completed smoothly.

What are the adverse effects of lack of protein on the human body?

Insufficient intake of protein and calories will affect the growth of body tissues due to inability to build, repair and maintain, and cause muscle atrophy and weight loss, commonly known as wasting.

If the intake is insufficient during exercise or the protein content in the diet is low, the protein that constitutes the tissue is transferred, which causes the lack of body protein, resulting in weight loss, decreased exercise efficiency, deterioration of physical fitness and exercise ability, and resistance to cold environments. The oxygen uptake capacity becomes low, and the resistance to infectious diseases is weakened. At the same time, the body’s heat production, antibodies, and immune body serum r-globulin are reduced.

In addition, the function of various organs causes changes, edema, and forms exercise-induced anemia. When chronically insufficient, fat deposits in the liver and becomes fatty liver, which is prone to cirrhosis.

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