What are the factors that affect the amount of exercise?

The factors that determine the amount of exercise are load intensity (the weight of the applied load), duration (the time it takes to complete an exercise), the number of repetitions per set, the number of completed sets, times or group intervals, and the number of daily or weekly exercises.

Among various factors, load intensity is the key factor that affects the effect of exercise. Different types of exercises have different methods for determining the load intensity. Static exercises determine the load intensity (weight) according to the duration of the exercise, and dynamic exercises determine the load intensity according to the number of repetitions that each group can repeat.

How to understand the amount of exercise?

Regardless of whether it is fitness exercise or sports training, there is a problem of arranging the amount of exercise reasonably. In mass physical exercise, the effect of exercise often depends on the amount of exercise.

If the amount of exercise is too small, the potential of the internal organs cannot be fully mobilized, so that the purpose of improving the function of the internal organs will not be achieved, and the effect of exercise will be very small.

On the contrary, if the amount of exercise is too large, it will exceed the limit of the body’s physiological load. Not only will it fail to achieve the purpose of strengthening physical fitness, but it will also often have an adverse effect on the health of the exerciser. How to arrange the amount of exercise to be considered appropriate?

Generally, you can use the measurement of objective physiological indicators and the subjective feelings of the exerciser to analyze, and you can know whether the amount of exercise is appropriate.

(1) The objective index measurement method is to use meters to monitor the changes of various physiological and biochemical indexes of the organism during exercise. According to the monitoring data and its changes, timely assess and control the amount of exercise.

Currently, commonly used indicators include pulse, blood pressure, weight, vital capacity, electrocardiogram, urine protein, hemoglobin, and other indicators before and after exercise and at rest.

1. Measuring pulse is the easiest and most convenient indicator to reflect the condition of the body

(1) Use the heart rate after the exercise to evaluate the pulse immediately after 5~10 minutes after each exercise, and compare it with the resting heart rate. If the resting heart rate is higher than 6 beats/min, it means that the body is not responding well. If there is no disease or other reasons, it means that the exercise is too large and should be adjusted; between 2~5 beats/min, it means that the exercise is moderate; if basically recovered The state of resting heart rate indicates that the amount of exercise is too small.

(2) Use the morning pulse to evaluate each exercise. After waking up the next morning, lie down for 1 to 3 minutes. Self-test the pulse and compare it with the resting heart rate. More than 6 beats/min, means that the amount of exercise is too large; between 2 to 5 beats/min, it means that the amount of exercise is moderate; if the state of resting heart rate is basically restored. This shows that the amount of exercise is too small.

2. The blood pressure recovery time after exercise has a certain relationship with the amount of exercise

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(1) Assess the recovery of blood pressure after exercise. If the blood pressure can return to a quiet level within 3 to 5 minutes after exercise, it means that the amount of exercise is small; after moderate exercise, it takes 30 to 40 minutes for blood pressure to return to normal; It takes 24 hours for blood pressure to return to normal after exercise.

(2) Using morning pressure to assess changes in blood pressure before waking up can reflect the body’s adaptation to the amount of exercise the previous day. When the blood pressure in the morning is 20% higher than usual, or the systolic blood pressure is higher than 140 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), and the diastolic blood pressure is higher than 90 mmHg, it often indicates that the body is ill or the training of the previous day has not recovered, and the amount of exercise is too large.

3 Changes in body weight can also reflect the amount of exercise. During normal training, the weight of adults should be maintained at a basically constant level. After a large amount of exercise, there can be a significant weight loss, but it usually takes one to two days to recover.

If there is continuous weight loss during training, and the reduction rate is more than 1/30 of the normal weight, it means that the amount of exercise may be improperly arranged or the body may become ill, and it should be noted. It is an abnormal phenomenon that the weight of children and adolescent athletes remains unchanged or even drops for a long time.

4. Urine protein can also reflect the amount of exercise. It is directly related to exercise intensity. Normal human urine contains very little protein, but after strenuous exercise, protein will appear in the urine.

It is possible to continuously measure the amount of urine protein after exercise or the next morning. If it increases at the beginning of training and then gradually decreases, this shows that the exerciser has never adapted to the amount of exercise, which is a good phenomenon.

If it increases at the beginning, and then the number does not decrease but gradually increases and the recovery is slow, this shows that the body is not adaptable, and the amount of exercise arranged, especially the exercise intensity, should be adjusted in time.

5. The electrocardiogram is a graph that records the electrical activation of the myocardium. It can reflect whether the amount of exercise is too large. After long-term training, the electrocardiogram often shows certain characteristics, such as sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block. This is due to the strengthening of the role of the vagus nerve and the adaptation of the heart.

However, the above-mentioned similar electrocardiogram changes will also occur when the amount of exercise is too large, the training is over, and the heart function is poor. Therefore, it should be carefully analyzed and judged in conjunction with other signs.

Especially when there is significant sinus arrhythmia, premature beats, long-standing incomplete right bundle branch block, ST interruption reduction, T wave inversion, and other extreme abnormal changes, pay more attention to it, because the above conditions are likely to be excessive Performance of training, poor cardiac function

(2) The self-perception method is also called self-supervision or self-physical examination. It is judged based on the subjective feelings of the participants during the exercise and 3-12 hours (or even within 24 hours) after the exercise. The content includes the self-feeling of the body and mind to the degree of fatigue, sleep, appetite, exercise desire, etc.

Generally, it can be judged from the following two aspects: 1. During or after the exercise, if the whole body is stretched and refreshed, there is a request to exercise for a while, indicating that the amount of exercise is moderate.

On the contrary, if within 4~12 (or even 24) hours after the exercise, there is not good food, sleeplessness, indifferent attitude towards pre-exercise, or wake up the next morning after exercise, feeling very tired, general fatigue, malaise Even dizziness, etc., indicating that the amount of exercise is too large. With the above reaction, the amount of exercise should be adjusted appropriately.

2. During or after the exercise, there is a slight sense of fatigue and muscle swelling, but it does not affect study, work, appetite, and sleep, and the muscle swelling is naturally eliminated within 13 hours, indicating that the amount of exercise is moderate.

However, if there is soreness in the local muscles and the pain points (zones) are enlarged and aggravated, it may be due to invisible inflammation of the muscles or tendons, or it may be caused by the improper arrangement of exercise methods. In addition, when the muscles have varying degrees of tightness or numbness, it also shows that the amount of exercise is too large. If you have the above reaction, you should adjust or reduce the intensity, or even stop practicing.

Evaluate the amount of exercise. In the absence of a meter, it is best to use a combination of exercise heart rate, recovery heart rate, and self-perception for comprehensive assessment, so that you can accurately and objectively grasp the changes in body function and regulate the amount of exercise in time.

How to choose the amount of running exercise according to different purposes?

Running does have many benefits to the body, and it is available for men, women, and children. However, how to scientifically choose the amount of exercise that suits you is a problem that everyone is concerned about. Everyone has different exercise requirements and different goals, and naturally, exercise methods and methods are also different. From the perspective of national fitness, I will talk about how athletes who aim to improve cardiopulmonary function and lose weight and bodybuilding should choose the amount of running exercise.

The study found that within 5 minutes of running, the heart adjusts to adapt to the body’s movement. The heartbeat increases significantly, and the heart pumps blood intensified, but pumping blood is uneven. This period is called the heart adaptation period.” Running continues. After 5 minutes, the heart has adapted, the heartbeat is strong, pumping blood evenly, and making corresponding adjustments according to the amount of exercise at any time.

3~5 minutes after the start of running, the oxygen intake can reach the highest level of the individual more than ten times more than when it is quiet, and a false stable state appears (that is, the oxygen intake has reached its highest level, and it cannot continue to increase, and it is stable. State, but it can’t meet the body’s need for oxygen). At the same time, the functions of the circulatory system and respiratory system have begun to reach their highest levels.

The breathing rate is above 60 beats/min, the lung ventilation is about 100~140 liters/min, the heart rate is as high as 180~220 beats/min, the systolic blood pressure rises to 24~26.7 kPa, the diastolic blood pressure drops to 6.67 kPa, even There are endless sounds. These changes in respiratory and circulatory functions during long-distance running have been maintained at such a high level for a long time.

It can be seen that if you run for the purpose of exercising, the time should not be less than 5 minutes, otherwise it will not help the improvement of cardiopulmonary function. Running for more than 5 minutes, the longer it lasts, the better the exercise effect on cardiopulmonary function.

As for the running speed is secondary, you can adjust it according to your own physical strength within 20 minutes of running. The main source of energy for sports is the glycogen stored in the body, especially muscle glycogen and liver glycogen because sugar is in Under aerobic conditions, it can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water, releasing a lot of energy.

After running for 20 minutes, most of the glycogen is depleted, and the main source of energy is transformed into body fat. When fat is used passively, it is first decomposed into glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerin can be directly oxidized for energy, while fatty acids are converted into acetyl-CoA, and then after being metabolized, part of it is converted into sugar to provide energy. Due to a large amount of oxygen required by fat for energy, when the intensity of running reaches the level of hypoxia, it is impossible to rely on oxidized fat to provide energy.

It can be seen that if you run for the purpose of weight loss and bodybuilding, the time should not be less than 20 minutes, and the speed should be slower to maintain even breathing. 20 minutes of slow running can not only deplete the glycogen in the body but also use fat in the body.

And because slow long-distance running is not very violent, it will not make the body excessively hypoxic, so it will help the fat consumption, so as to achieve the goal of weight loss.

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