What is the range of joint activities of the human body?

The various postures of the human body must be realized through joints. The motion position and amplitude are determined by the characteristics of the joint structure. However, sports enthusiasts, athletes, acrobats, etc. have different degrees of joint mobility.

For example, the forward flexion, extension, and abduction of the hip, and the forward flexion and extension of the spine, all have much greater mobility than normal people. In addition, there are some joints, everyone is a degree of mobility, such as elbow joints, knee joints should not be reverse flexion and varus. The joint range of motion listed here is the range of motion of a normal person.

Understanding the function, position, and amplitude of human joints is of great significance for physical exercise, exercise guidance, and the prevention of joint damage.

A. Shoulder joint

The shoulder joint is a joint with many directions, large amplitudes, and full functions of the human body. This is due to the small joint socket and large joint head. But it is prone to injury and dislocation during sports. Strengthening shoulder joint exercises and enhancing the strength and flexibility of the muscles around the shoulder joint can not only improve the function of the shoulder joint but also prevent injury.

The shoulder joint has seven degrees of motion. Age, gender, and whether they often engage in physical exercise, etc., make different people have differences in the range of activities. Here is the range of movement of the shoulder joint of a normal person.

Range of shoulder joint movement:

1. Forward bending: 70 degrees to 90 degrees.

2. Post-extension: 40 degrees.

3. Abduction: 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

4. Adduction: 20 degrees to 40 degrees.

5. Internal rotation: 70 degrees to 90 degrees.

6. External rotation: 40 degrees to 50 degrees.

7. Uplift: 160 degrees to 180 degrees.

B. Elbow joint

The elbow joint is a commonly used joint in life. It has the functions of elbow flexion, pronation and supination. There is no back extension, inward and outward function. A small number of women and children over-extension into reverse flexion, but it should not exceed 10 degrees. People with well-developed biceps have a smaller elbow flexion range than normal people. This is due to the large biceps muscle belly, which is related to it. It is common in weightlifting, gymnastics, and bodybuilders. Falling and supporting the ground with the palm of the hand during exercise often damage the elbow joint, causing dislocation and fracture.

Range of elbow joint movement:

1. Flexion: 135°~150°.

2. Excessive extension: 10 degrees.

3. Pronation: 80°~90°.

4. Supination: 80 degrees to 90 degrees.

C. Wrist joint The wrist joint is the bridge between the forearm and the finger movement. It cleverly relies on the joint movement of the hand to play the movement function of the hand.

Although the wrist joints are thin, they can also carry huge weights in sports such as gymnastics and weightlifting. In martial arts and rhythmic gymnastics, the wrist joints show flexible movements in conjunction with the upper limbs. Wrist joints are prone to acute and chronic injuries in sports.

The wrist joint has four ranges of motion:

1. Back extension: 30 degrees ~ 60 degrees (up to 90 degrees for professionally trained athletes)

2. Palm flexion: 50 degrees to 60 degrees.

3. Abduction (flexion): 25 degrees to 30 degrees.

4. Adduction (ulnar flexion) 30 degrees to 40 degrees.

D. Hand joints (including metacarpophalangeal joints, knuckle joints) Hands play an important role in people’s life, labor, and physical exercise. The structure of the hand is very special, not only exquisite, but also the thumb has the function of opposing the palm, can hold things tightly, and has a lot of strength. From horizontal bars, parallel bars, climbing, and weightlifting exercises, it is enough to show the grip strength of the fingers. From the index finger to the little finger of the hand, there is no back extension function, only the functions of flexion, separation, and close together. The thumb can be flexed, abducted, adducted, and opposing functions. In volleyball, basketball, and wrestling, hands are prone to ligament injuries, joint dislocations, and fractures.

Range of hand joint movement:

1. Metacarpophalangeal joints (index finger to little finger): Flexion: 60 degrees to 90 degrees.

2. Interphalangeal joints (index finger to little finger): proximal 90 degrees, distal 60 degrees to 90 degrees.

3. Thumb joint: the abduction of 40 degrees, flexion: palm and hallux joints of 20 degrees to 50 degrees, interphalangeal joints of 90 degrees.

Opposing palms: The thumb can form a ring with the tip of the index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger. Adduction: can reach the five fingers together.

E. Cervical spine

The cervical spine is a commonly used joint and a frequently-occurring site. Severe trauma, dislocation, and fracture can cause high paraplegia. Should pay attention to the self-protection of the neck when exercising.

The cervical spine has six ranges of motion

1. Forward bending: 35 degrees to 45 degrees.

2. Post-extension: 35 degrees to 45 degrees.

3. Left and right flexion: 45 degrees each.

4. Rotate from 60 degrees to 80 degrees left and right.

F. Back

The lumbar spine activities include thoracic, lumbar spine, and the 1st sacral vertebra. The degree of activity is not easy to determine individually, and the degree of activity varies greatly from person to person. For example, gymnastics, martial arts athletes, and acrobats all greatly exceed the range of activities of ordinary people. The gap between ages is also very large, so the range of activities of normal people can only prevail. The waist is also a common part of the disease, so in sports activities, the strength of the back muscles should be strengthened to strengthen the protection of the waist.

There are six ranges of motion on the back

1. Forward bending: 90 degrees.

2. Back extension: 30 degrees.

3. Left and right flexion: 30 degrees each.

4. Rotate left and right by 30 degrees each.

G. Hip

 The hip joint is the most flexible and load-bearing joint in the lower limbs of the human body. Whether you have been trained or not has a lot to do with the range of motion of the joints, and the range of motion varies greatly with age. In addition, the hip joint is restricted by the multi-joint muscles. When the knee is flexed, the degree of motion is different when the knee is flexed and the knee is flexed. The former has a large hip flexion, while the latter has a small hip flexion.

You can do an experiment: bend the knees and squat the chest and abdomen part can stick to the thigh, but when the knee joint is straightened, the chest and abdomen are difficult to stick to the thigh. Gymnastics, martial arts athletes, acrobatics, and opera performers have much greater hip joint mobility than ordinary people. Therefore, hip joint mobility can only be measured in the range of ordinary people. Middle-aged and elderly people are prone to avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but the incidence is very low in people with good physical exercise habits.

The hip has six ranges of motion

1. Flexion (knee flexion): 130 degrees to 140 degrees.

2. Posterior extension: (knee extension position): 10 degrees to 15 degrees.

3. Abduction: 30 degrees to 45 degrees.

4. Adduction: 20 degrees to 30 degrees.

5. External rotation (knee flexion position): 30 degrees to 40 degrees.

6. Internal rotation: 40 degrees to 50 degrees.

H. Knee

 In order to ensure the stability of the human body walking upright, the knee joint has a relatively small range of motion. Knee flexion is large, knee extension, adduction, and abduction are limited. There is no rotation function in the knee extension position. Only in the knee flexion position can there be a range of motion of 10 degrees of internal rotation and 20 degrees of external rotation.

A small number of women and children can hyperextend the knee joint by 5 to 10 degrees. If it exceeds 10 degrees, it will affect the function of the knee joint. The knee joint is prone to injury during exercise. Middle-aged and elderly people also have more knee joint diseases. Usually, you can strengthen the quadriceps muscle (exercise the anterior thigh muscles) to enhance the stability of the knee joint and protect the knee joint.

Knee joint range of motion:

1. Flexion: 120°~150°

2. Overextension: 5 degrees to 10 degrees.

3. Rotation (knee flexion position): internal rotation 10 degrees, external rotation 20 degrees.

I. Ankle and Foot

The connection structure between the ankle joint and the foot is very complicated, and it is a joint that needs to bear weight but also needs to be flexible. It is easy to be injured in daily life, labor and sports activities, and serious fractures can easily damage joint function, so protection should be paid attention to.

Ankle range of motion:

1. Ankle dorsiflexion (dorsiflexion) 20 degrees to 30 degrees.

2. Ankle plantarflexion: 40 degrees to 50 degrees.

3. Subtalar joint varus 30 degrees, valgus 30 to 35 degrees.

4. The abduction and adduction of the intertarsal joint (front of the foot) are 25 degrees each.

5. Metatarsophalangeal joint (important for the hallux), dorsiflexion (back extension) 45 degrees, plantar flexion: 30 degrees to 40 degrees.

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